The function of the endoplasmic reticulum is very useful in continuous membrane systems. The reason is, it can form a series of flat sacs in the cytoplasm. Able to serve various functions, especially in protein synthesis, folding and transportation.
All eukaryotic cells have organelles which are the endoplasmic reticulum. RE is part of the cell in the membrane. In the RE region composed of several cytoplasm called the cytosol.
Divided into an empty room covered by a membrane with a thickness of 4 nanometers. It is directly connected to the nuclear envelope called the nuclear envelope. The RE function is very broad and is related to other organs.
Recognize the Function of the Endoplasmic Reticulum by Type
Broadly speaking, RE is divided into three types. Each of them has a varied function. The following are the three types of endoplasmic reticulum:
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
The first type is the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). This means that this type of RE has a rougher structure. On the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum there are spots called ribosomes.
In addition, it also has a role in the process of protein synthesis. So that protein needs can be fulfilled optimally. The main function of the REK is a place to carry out the protein synthesis process.
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Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
The second type is the smooth endoplasmic reticulum which is the opposite of the REK. Because it is the opposite, it has no spots which are none other than ribosomes.
This function of the endoplasmic reticulum helps metabolic processes. Able to assist in lipid synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism and calcium concentration. This is through detoxifying drugs.
In addition, the smooth endoplasmic reticulum also serves as a place for receptors to attach to cell membrane proteins. The location of the REH is in a high proportion or in the liver cells. This area is the production site for lipoproteins.
Sarcoplasmic Endoplasmic Reticulum
The third type is sarcoplasmic endoplasmic reticulum. It is a special type of REH which is located on smooth and striated muscles. What is different is the protein content in the REH.
Another case with the sarcoplasmic endoplasmic reticulum which is useful for storing calcium ions. In addition, this function of the endoplasmic reticulum also pumps calcium ions. Then also a special role to trigger contraction in the muscles.
Endoplasmic Reticulum Structure
ER is one of the broad cisternae membrane networks that are retained by the cytoskeleton. Encased by a membrane of phospholipids, fluimens, and cytosol. Then there is continuity with the perinuclear space.
Apart from the function of the endoplasmic reticulum, it is also important to study its structure. The surface of each endoplasmic reticulum is different. Everything is based on their respective types.
The endoplasmic reticulum also varies in area. Starting from the cell membrane stretched through the cytoplasm. It can even form continuous connections with the nuclear envelope.
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Endoplasmic Reticulum in Plant Cells
RE in plant cells is a channel for the entry of proteins in the membrane. The endoplasmic reticulum has an important role in lipid biosynthesis and storage. This shows its role related to plant survival.
The endoplasmic reticulum functions in plant cells to synthesize proteins from maturation. RE has several additional functions that are not present in animals. This additional function involves the cell communicating with specialized cells.
Not only that, but RE also functions as a place to store protein. The endoplasmic reticulum contains structural enzymes and proteins. ER in plants is connected between cells by means of a plasmodesmata.
Endoplasmic Reticulum in Animal Cells
Next there is the endoplasmic reticulum in animal cells. Is a network of pockets that function for manufacturing. This will relate to a double-layered nuclear envelope.
The function of the endoplasmic reticulum also includes processing and transporting various types of chemical compounds. It is also in use in and out of cells. ER is a multifunctional organelle that synthesizes membrane lipids, proteins, and regulates intracellular calcium.
The endoplasmic reticulum can also neutralize toxins by detoxification. It also serves as a means of transporting molecules and cell parts from one cell to another.
This protein modification is through synthesis by ribosomes which will later be channeled into the Golgi complex. The end result will come out of the cell.
Those are some of the functions of the endoplasmic reticulum in animals and plants. Each type of RE will perform its role well and optimally. So that the survival process can be guaranteed. (R10 / HR Online)